Every ten years, agencies with by-district election systems must use new census data to review and, if needed, redraw electoral division lines to reflect how local populations have changed. This process, called redistricting, ensures all divisions comply with both the California and federal Voting Rights Acts.
As part of the redistricting process, on February 8, 2022, RWD Board of Directors adopted a final electoral division boundaries map. Click on this link to view RWD Resolution No. 2-2022, Resolution of the Board of Directors Adjusting Boundaries of Director Electoral Divisions. New electoral divisions shall become effective with the November 8, 2022, general election.
What is redistricting?
Every ten years, after receiving an updated U.S. Census count, local jurisdictions that elect their representatives by division as opposed to at-large reestablish district boundaries. The Rowland Water District must reestablish electoral divisional boundaries, creating divisions that are balanced in population and in accordance with local, state, and federal laws that govern the redistricting process.
What does “substantially” equal mean?
The standard for reapportionment of congressional districts is that such districts, or in RWD’s case electoral divisions, must be equal in population “as nearly practicable,” with the phrase “as nearly as is practicable” defined to mean “a good faith effort to achieve precise mathematical equality.” However, for local redistricting plans, some divergence from the equal population rule is constitutionally permissible if the disparity is caused by legitimate considerations incidental to the effectuation of a rational state policy. Relatively minor deviations from mathematical equality in state or local electoral districts are constitutionally permissible as long as there is “substantial equality” in population between districts. While there is no absolute bright line rule regarding the permissible amount of population deviation, a total deviation below 10% presumably meets the “substantial equality” standard. Total deviation is measured between the highest population district and the lowest population district.
What is a community of interest?
A community of interest is a contiguous population that shares common social and economic interests that should be included within a single district for purposes of its effective and fair representation.
What is the Voting Rights Act?
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a federal legislation that prohibits racial discrimination in voting. Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act prohibits electoral practices that are “not equally open to participation by the members of a (racial, color, or language minority) in that its members have fewer opportunities than other members of the electorate to participate in the political process and to elect representatives of their choice.” Thus, the Voting Rights Act can be violated by either intentional discrimination in the drawing of district lines or by a facially neutral redistricting plan that has the effect of diluting minority votes.
What is “cracking” and “packing”?
“Cracking” is the splitting of a geographically compact minority population among two or more electoral divisions, thereby reducing the group’s ability to elect a representative in any division. “Packing” is the dilution of minority group voting strength by improperly placing more minority voters into a electoral division than is necessary to elect a representative of their choice.